# Mathematics & Astronomy in Ancient India

* ***Mathematics & Astronomy in Ancient India:**

**Mathematics & Astronomy in Ancient India:**

**Science and Mathematics** were highly developed during the ancient period in India. Ancient Indians contributed immensely to the knowledge in Mathematics as well as various branches of Science. ** Many theories of modern day mathematics** were actually known to ancient Indians.

**However**, since ancient Indian mathematicians were

**not as good in documentation and dissemination**as their counterparts in the

**modern western world**, their contributions

**. Moreover, the**

*did not find the place they deserved***, which empowered them to claim superiority in every way, including in the field of knowledge.**

*western world ruled over most of the world for a long time***Ancient Indian Mathematicians:**

**Baudhayan: **7th to 8th century BC Mathematician

**Aryabhatta: **5th century Mathematician

**Brahmagupta:** 7th century Mathematician

**Baskaracharya:** 12th century Mathematician

**Mahaviracharya:** 9th century Mathematician

**Baudhayan:**

**Baudhayan:**

- The
calculated by him.*value of pi was first***pi**is useful in calculating the area and circumference of a circle. - What is known as
**Pythagoras theorem today**is already found in, which was written several years before the age of Pythagoras.*Baudhayan’s Sulva Sutra*

**Aryabhatta:**

**Aryabhatta:**

- Aryabhatta was a
**fifth century mathematician, astronomer, astrologer and physicist**. He was a**pioneer in the field of mathematics**. At the age of 23, he wrote**Aryabhattiya**, which is aof his time. There are four sections in this scholarly work. In the*summary of mathematics***first section**he describes the. In the*method of denoting big decimal numbers by alphabets***second section**, we find difficult questions from topics of. The r*modern day Mathematics such as number theory, geometry, trigonometry and Beejganita (algebra)***emaining two sections**are on**astronomy.** - Aryabhatta showed that
Discovery of zero enabled Aryabhatta to*zero was not a numeral only but also a symbol and a concept.*between the earth and the moon. The*find out the exact distance***discovery of zero**also opened up a new dimension of**negative numerals**. - Disregarding the popular view that our planet earth is
He explained that the appearance of the sun moving from east to west is false by giving examples.*‘Achala’ (immovable), Aryabhatta stated his theory that ‘earth is round and rotates on its own axis’ .*

**Brahmgupta:**

**Brahmgupta:**

- In
**7****th****century, Brahmgupta took mathematics to heights**far beyond others. - In his methods of multiplication, he used
**place value**in almost the same way as it is used today. - He introduced n
and*egative numbers*into mathematics.*operations on zero* - He wrote
through which the Arabs came to know our mathematical system.*Brahm Sputa Siddantika*

**Bhaskaracharya :**

**Bhaskaracharya :**

**Bhaskaracharya**was the**leading light of 12****th****Century.**- He is famous for his book
**Siddanta Shiromani**. It is divided into four sections:.*Lilavati (Arithmetic), Beejaganit (Algebra), Goladhyaya (Sphere) and Grahaganit (mathematics of planets)* - Bhaskara introduced
to solve algebraic equations. This method was r*Chakrawat Method or the Cyclic Method*, who called it*ediscovered six centuries later by European mathematicians***inverse cycle.** - In the nineteenth century, an English man,
**James Taylor, translated Lilavati**and made this great work known to the world.

**Mahaviracharya :**

**Mahaviracharya :**

- There is an elaborate description of mathematics in
Jain gurus knew how to solve quadratic equations. They have also described*Jain literature (500 B.C -100 B.C).*in a very interesting manner.*fractions, algebraic equations, series, set theory, logarithms and exponents* **Jain Guru Mahaviracharya**wrote**Ganit Sara Sangraha in 850A.D.**, which is the first textbook on. The c*arithmetic in present day form***urrent method of solving Least common Multiple (LCM)**of given numbers was also described by him. Thus,*long before John Napier introduced it to the world, it was already known to Indians.*

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